When Krakatoa exploded, it shattered the eardrums of sailors forty kilometers away
and those on land assumed there was war at sea due to the echo of violent eruptions considered to be guns on the water.

After the explosion in Pompeii, the city was covered in seven meters of volcanic ash, comprised mostly of tephra, hot glass-like shards of magma choking out air. Quickly, rain
came and the ash turned to cement and the city was buried, its ruins discovered years later.

In Mount Pele, only two people survived, one of them a prisoner encased in the cement walls of jail. The walls were so thick, even the volcanic ash couldn’t penetrate.

Seventy-five percent of volcanic activity occurs on the ocean floor and goes unnoticed, at surface level, say nothing of the ecosystems below.

The smallness of a pebble is mineral material potential. These are carried by agents, wind or waves or glaciers or water; there is activity. The possibility of growth is a constant. The lifespan of a volcano is approximately one million years. Active. Dormant. Extinct. The pulling of the plates. The folding. The collapse to gravity. We learned our best lessons from rock.

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